Comparative Law and Language <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="section"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><em><span lang="EN-US">Comparative Law and Language</span></em><span lang="EN-US"> (ISSN 2785-7417) is a scientific journal, online and peer-reviewed, which aims to enhance interest and scientific debate on the relationship between law and language, in and within different national and supranational legal systems, from a comparative perspective. </span><span lang="EN-US">The journal is edited by Trento University and publishes two Issues per year.</span></p> </div> </div> </div> </div> Università degli Studi di Trento en-US Comparative Law and Language 2785-7417 Editorial <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Editorial to the fourth issue</p> </div> </div> </div> Sybe de Vries Copyright (c) 2023 Comparative Law and Language 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 2 2 Narratives in Flux <p>This article argues that legal language tells stories and presents a certain world view, and that the changing circumstances ‘out there’ in the real world require a corresponding change in the legal narrative/narratives contained in law. By changing circumstances I mean the so-called twin transitions of the increased and ever-increasing importance of digital technologies in society, and the ever-increasing urgency of the climate change crisis. For jurists to be able to handle these challenges, we need to train our awareness of the narratives and normative qualities of our legal language, so that we are able to critically assess whether our vocabulary and regulatory toolkit is fit for the future.</p> Pauline Phoa Copyright (c) 2023 Comparative Law and Language 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 2 2 Linguistic Obstacles for Migrating Professionals in the EU Internal Market: Time for a Legislative Overhaul <p>In this article, I assess the law of the European Union (EU) as regards linguistic obstacles in the functioning of the internal market. In essence, the research aims to determine in which cases and to what extent an assessment of linguistic proficiency may be admissible under EU law for professionals seeking employment in another EU Member State than their own.</p> <p>Indeed, assessing the linguistic skills of potential employees to determine their ability to communicate effectively in the workplace and with clients is quite common and widely accepted. In the same vein, self-employed private (medical) service providers who want to establish themselves in another EU Member State, or students wishing to study in another language than their own, may have to prove to possess adequate linguistic skills. However, making the threshold too high may amount to an indirect discrimination on the basis of nationality. Linguistic requirements are, furthermore, by no means limited to the exercise of a professional activity in a broad sense, but may also concern eligibiliy for social benefits, as these may be made conditional upon a certain level of proficiency in the local language.</p> <p>It appears that there is a considerable degree of legal uncertainty surrounding these topics, not least with regard to self-employed professions. As it stands, EU law seems open to various interpretations as to the autonomy of EU Member States to regulate this field, not least when it comes to the intensity of language testing. The European Commission seems to focus primarily on free movement and is rather reluctant to establish clear guidelines. On a positive note, in its (limited) case law, the European Court of Justice has provided important albeit broad guidelines. It is argued that this topic is in need of a comprehensive legislative overhaul granting the EU Member States more autonomy, on the basis of clearly established criteria, to lay down and assess linguistic requirements for professionals migrating to their territory.</p> Stefaan Van der Jeught Copyright (c) 2023 Comparative Law and Language 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 2 2 The Cestui que trust in Law french <p>The aim of the article is to explore a period in history when England, Normandy and France were closely linked, when 'French' was spoken on both sides of the Channel, and when a new language developed, <em>Law French</em>, traces of which cannot be ignored in modern English law. To do this, we need to go back in time, even beyond 1066, when English did not exist in the form we know it today and a foreign language, Anglo-Norman, was introduced on the English soil, developed there, in particular in the legal world, under the name of <em>Law French</em>, and then slowly died out, although it partially survived in the special sphere that is law. In order to be as concrete as possible, the example of the <em>cestui que trust</em> has been chosen, offering an opportunity to take a journey that is at once historical, etymological and legal. The <em>cestui que trust</em> expression is one of those ready-made formulas whose pronunciation is a challenge in itself, while its meaning remains enigmatic at first sight. There is a very simple equivalent, the term beneficiary of a trust, the (very) vague equivalent of the French <em>fiducie</em>, but even in 2023, an English lawyer will still take (great) pleasure in favouring the <em>cestui que trust</em> expression over the beneficiary one. Even today, it remains difficult to understand with certainty whether the trust and by extension the <em>cestui que trust</em> are products of Roman, Norman, English, French or other law. The article is written in French, as it has the merit of emphasising that medieval French had and still has an influence on English law, something that few French speakers are aware of, but it can be translated into English.</p> Anne-Sophie Milard Copyright (c) 2023 Comparative Law and Language 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 2 2 Les mots intraduisibles en droit à travers la comparaison entre les éléments du sys-tème juridique britannique, français et polonais <p> Il existe un lien étroit entre la langue et le droit. La linguistique juridique nous invite à étudier le langage du droit, langage spécialisé puisque le droit donne un sens particulier à certains mots. De la relation entre droit et langue découle l’interaction entre droit et traduction. Traduire le droit est une opération délicate. Le vocabulaire et les discours du droit sont construits pour exprimer les spécificités propres à chaque système juridique. Ainsi, la traduction juridique renvoie vers de multiples systèmes juridiques. Elle suppose l’emploi des concepts qui peuvent varier d’un système juridique à l’autre ou encore qui peuvent être purement et simplement inconnus dans un droit ou dans l’autre. Le traducteur se trouve confronté à des mots intraduisibles. Différentes techniques ont été proposées face aux mots intraduisibles en droit. L’objectif de cette communication est de les aborder en insistant sur la belle aventure comparatiste à laquelle invitent les mots intraduisibles en droit. En effet, la comparaison juridique des termes est le moyen le plus fiable pour parvenir à leur traduction. Enfin, l’existence des mots intraduisibles en droit est bel et bien la preuve que face à la globalisation et la mondialisation, la diversité des cultures juridiques a pu être préservée.</p> Agata de Laforcade Copyright (c) 2023 Comparative Law and Language 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 2 2 La parola e il diritto dell’Unione europea: riflessioni sparse <div><span lang="EN-GB">The essay explores the relationship between language and law in the European Union (EU) through a lens focused on the term 'word'. </span></div> <div><span lang="EN">The article intends to underline the role of effective multilingualism as a fundamental element of protection not only of national languages, but of European Union law itself; history teaches how multilingualism works as a barrier to national juridical models conveyed within EU law through a prevailing lingua franca. </span></div> <div><span lang="EN-GB">It addresses the challenges inherent in multilingualism, and explores the nuanced process of translation and adaptation, in which legal concepts are subject to semantic casts. Highlighting the collaborative efforts among jurists and linguists to address the challenges in multilingual legal frameworks, it is also intended to underline how the path towards a shared legal language inspires not only intra-EU, but global dialogues.</span></div> Elena Ioriatti Copyright (c) 2023 Comparative Law and Language 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 2 2 Lessons on legal bilingualism from Malaysia and beyond <p>Lessons on legal bilingualism from Malaysia and beyond</p> Alexander Teutsch Copyright (c) 2023 Comparative Law and Language 2023-12-21 2023-12-21 2 2